Existential Analysis: how I work with you


Existential Concern

I first read Jean-Paul Sartre’s “Nausea” – a classic existential novel – when I was nineteen.  From a place of teenage angst it struck a chord with me as I recognised the overwhelming sensitivities I felt at the time and typically kept to myself.  Sartre speaks of experiencing the world in his own unique felt way; a way that many sensitive individuals experience but keep to themselves, rarely entering discussion.  The vividness of what it is to be alive, affected and shaped by our past and present experiences, surrounded by a world and society of people who are often false, guarded, or threatening, all the while hiding behind the roles we adopt and that we play with one another, like actors in a continuous theatre production.  For those sensitive to the push and pull of everyday life, we can long for truth, authenticity, genuine connection even when we don’t quite know what fuels the longing.  This is what I would call ‘existential concern’: an interest in what it is to experience being alive.

“Awareness in itself is healing.”

Frederick Perls


Existential Analysis

Existential Analysis or Existential Psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy that has developed since Freud’s lifetime as a response to his Psychoanalysis.  Unlike most other therapies it is not a fixed system repeated by each practitioner from an instruction manual, but is instead a way for each psychotherapist to draw on his or her lived experience, existential philosophies (such as Sartre, Kierkegaard and others) and a method of enquiry called phenomenology to form honest, authentic relationships with their patients.

When practiced genuinely, each practitioner, rather than repeating a set format or protocol, instead formulates his or her own unique approach to therapy based on existential principles of understanding and enquiry.  The individual human being is understood as a multi-dimensional, unique, free agent struggling to meet his or her needs against the forces within and around us, not least of which is existential angst or anxiety.  Angst is viewed, not as a pathological symptom to be eliminated, but as a defining characteristic of Being, which we experience in relation to our awareness of our individual life being finite, our need for meaning, our experiential separateness from others, and our freedom to choose from a multitude of possibilities.  Our tasks as individuals are to take full ownership of our choices and our life by developing our awareness, meaning, values and skilfulness in order to honestly address our physical, mental, relationship and spiritual needs.  In keeping with the theme of personal authenticity, each practitioner of Existential Analysis or Psychotherapy resists the notion of conformity to a prescribed or predetermined way of working, and instead works in his or her own unique way, with some therapists employing a broad range of psychological theories, models and therapeutic methods within an existential framework of understanding.

  • The above video is an academic look at Existential Analysis and its roots in existential philosophy.  In practice the therapy is very pragmatic, easy to understand and clear and is unrestricted as to what the patient may want to address or explore during therapy sessions.

First Steps

You can follow as step-by-step guide to the psychotherapy I offer by visiting the Guide page of this website.



My formulation of Existential Analysis is combined with Integrative Psychotherapy and involves the use of a wide variety of ideas, methods and approaches to understanding and problem solving and expressing experiences from the whole person (mind and body) that I have developed over the past twenty years.  I am always developing my practice, and stay open to new ways of approaching the work, including suggestions that you might want to make.  The core concern that remains unchanged in my work is a committment to personal authenticity and honesty in the relationship.  I believe that when we are willing to be courageous enough to reveal ourselves truthfully then we create therapeutic conditions that allow change, discovery, learning, growth and personal integrity to develop.  Being truthful about what we genuinely experience from moment to moment takes us out of our heads and into our senses, allowing us to bring our full attention to how we relate to one another as whole human beings.

Here are some of the methods I use to help patients develop their courage to get in touch with their genuine experiences and ‘the vulnerable self’ within the therapeutic relationship:

  • Written work: journals, specific diary exercises, therapeutic task sheets, support plans that help you create a kind of road map of where you’re going, and therapeutic writing
  • Art work: drawing, painting, photography and any kind of visual media that might allow you to access feelings or memories and explore them in a non-threatening way; this and other methods that allow you to keep painful or distressing experiences at ‘arms-length’ can be used as first steps towards examining and integrating these types of experiences and difficult memories in a safe, graded way.


  • Monodrama: this involves re-enacting an event or idea or dream and putting yourself in the shoes of someone or something in that event or dream.  This is an excellent way to access solutions and discover blind spots that are not so obvious through normal discussion
  • Talking: the most obvious vehicle for doing therapy, but it can be much more than discussion.  Experimenting with sentences, affirmations and things that you may be ‘saying’ with your body or ‘beneath’ your words are a few of the ways in which we can use talking in creative and therapeutic ways to reach deeper levels of awareness.
  • Film, music, art and literature: using films, music, art and literature as a way of exploring ideas, expressing emotions and experiences, and possibilities that come up in therapy


  • Somatic Experience/ Body work: I’m also a qualified yoga instructor and regularly use specific yoga postures and breathing exercises to enhance body awareness, release stress and manage anxiety, helping you train your body to respond with greater calm and composure to difficult situations and experiences.  Somatic therapy also helps you release old unexpressed emotions that we tend to hold in the body as tension, allowing people to let go of the old and be more open to new experiences.
  • Meditation: I use a wide variety of meditation techniques to help you develop awareness and cultivate states of calmness and transparency in your daily life
  • Guided awareness: I use a variety of methods to guide your awareness to greater acceptance, relaxation and visualisation of helpful states of mind or ‘safe spaces’ that you create in order to better manage stress, tension or difficult experiences.
  • Tackling problem situations together: sometimes it can be helpful to visit a situation together so that we can work through whatever problems you’re having in specific locations.  For example, anxiety states or phobias associated with being outside or in crowded places, talking to strangers etc.


  • Your chosen medium: if you are interested in photography, writing, painting, music, dance, acting or writing, I would encourage your use of these and other creative media in the service of your therapy.  During sessions you’re welcome to bring anything along that can help us understand and explore your perspective.
  • Emotional intelligence and healing trauma: I use a variety of methods to help you access your emotions in safe, gentle ways.  This can include very painful emotions from past events or traumas.  In such instances I would pay particular attention to a. teaching you specific techniques for making you feel safe and grounded; b teaching you specific techniques for looking at painful events safely; c. helping you establish a strong foundation or ‘safe place’ before d. using the least invasive or emotive methods to explore past trauma in very small periods of time.  With such work we go at a pace that is right for you, taking great care to ensure that you are not ‘re-traumatised’.

These are just a few of the tools that are available within my practice and I approach each patient as a unique person with unique requirements and do my best to tailor what I offer you at each stage of your development or progress throughout the work.  Therapeutic work is then only limited by the creative possibilities we agree to pursue, with the work amounting to a creative process of discovery and learning.


Structure and Format

In keeping with this approach of flexibility and creativity I also do my best to collaborate with you to create the best possible therapy format and support structure for your needs and particular circumstances so that you get therapy delivered in a way that gives you the best chance of success.  This can involve varying the frequency of sessions (if therapeutic momentum is maintained), using different ways of undertaking the sessions, providing specific kinds of support between sessions, and other ways of creating support provision for times of stress or urgency outside normal hours.  Therapeutic work is always conducted within clear professional boundaries designed to protect our mutual interests and with a view to helping you make the most of our work together.


Personal authenticity is central to my working philosophy and practice, and forms the core of therapeutic change in the relationship.  I have several articles on my Resources Page on the subject.  Generally, in therapy this involves our willingness to cut through the smoke and mirrors of conventional social ways of interacting, with a willingness to speak plainly and frankly about what is happenening in the relationship.  By making a commitment to honesty and truthfulness, the relationship can become transformative for therapeutic change.  Clearly, this requires courage and a willingess to risk oneself in the interests of getting to the truth of what we are about.  With encouragement and practice, patients discover that they can speak freely about anything without being judged, criticised or punished for it.  More than this, when we speak the truth of our experience within a relationship that values it then we affirm ourselves at the deepest level, helping us build our confidence and the courage to be who we genuinely are from one moment to the next.

A scene from the inspirational film “Dead Poet’s Society” in which the tutor – played by the late, great Robin Williams –  teaches one of the fundamental existential truths to his students: the importance of treasuring each moment of our very short life.  Watching this film is a therapeutic exercise in itself.

Main image used under Creative Commons free usage licence from dreamypixel

existential-analysis.com and therapyglasgow.com are domain names owned by Psychotherapy, Counselling and Personal Development, Glasgow

© Copyright Notice: All original artwork, photographs, written and audio material on this website is subject to copyright and cannot be used, shared or reproduced without permission and clear attribution being made to the author.  Please contact me if in doubt.  Other images are used under Creative Commons licences where attributed e.g. wikipedia commons, pexels.com, dreamypixel.

9 Comments Add yours

  1. J♡ says:

    Are you familiar with EMDR? If so, what are your thoughts on the effectiveness of using it in treatment?

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Stephen says:

      Hi J. Yes I’m familiar with EMDR and believe it can be useful for certain problems. I haven’t used it in my practice though. Is it something you’ve experienced?

      Liked by 1 person

      1. J♡ says:

        Hi Stephen. Yes, I have experienced this treatment to help with ptsd. I’m not sure if it was helpful or not, to be honest. I do remember those sessions being emotionally draining though.

        Liked by 1 person

      2. Stephen says:

        I tend to approach PTSD in a different way. I know EMDR can sometimes work but I personally wouldn’t rely on one technique. PTSD, like everything else, is a clinical name given to your particular set of experiences and those experiences have to be looked at in a way that is unique to you, even though some people will approach it a bit like a medical illness with specific treatment models. Did you also take additional steps for your PTSD?

        Liked by 1 person

  2. J♡ says:

    I agree. It’s been several years, but I believe it was probably just talk therapy. I had other issues going on at the time that felt more pressing and we sort of drifted towards those instead during sessions.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Stephen says:

      I understand. There are specific things you can do with PTSD. But in a broad sense I’d be thinking about establishing a secure foundation of present awareness and groundedness that the person can then use to begin to look at difficult experiences in the gentlest way, moving back and forth between the foundation of here-and-now awareness and the there-and-then of the difficult experiences, for example. You can do this using a variety of techniques that help the person distance themselves from the experience and gradually face it step by step in their own time. Writing can actually be quite a nice way to start that process, as can art media for example.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. J♡ says:

    Stephen, that sounds like a great approach.

    Liked by 1 person

    1. Stephen says:

      Thanks J. There’s a lot you can do yourself to work on the foundational part I mentioned. Email me if I can help at all. Take care for now

      Liked by 1 person

      1. J♡ says:

        Thank you so much!!

        Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.